Introduction 5
Friedrich Scheuermann and Francesc Pedró
Chapter I — Context and general refl ections
In search of the sustainable knowledge base:
multi-channel and multi-method? 13
Øystein Johannessen
Addressing the complexity of impact — A multilevel approach
towards ICT in education 21
Ola Erstad
Chapter II — State of the Art
Monitoring in education: an overview 41
Willem Pelgrum
What do we know about the eff ective uses of information and
communication technologies in education in developing countries? 61
Michael Trucano
Chapter III — Conceptual frameworks
A framework for understanding and evaluating the impact
of information and communication technologies in education 69
Katerina Kikis, Friedrich Scheuermann and Ernesto Villalba
ICT to improve quality in education —
A conceptual framework and indicators in the use of information
communication technology for education (ICT4E) 83
Marcelo Cabrol and Eugenio Severin
A conceptual framework for benchmarking the use and assessing
the impact of digital learning resources in school education 107
Beñat Bilbao-Osorio and Francesc Pedró

Chapter IV — Case studies
Assessing new technological literacies 121
Edys S. Quellmalz
The impact of ICT in education policies on teacher practices
and student outcomes in Hong Kong 143
Nancy Law, Yeung Lee and H.K. Yuen
Indicators on ICT in primary and secondary education:
results of an EU study 165
Willem Pelgrum
Impacts of ICT use on school learning outcome 189
Heeok Heo and Myunghee Kang
ICT impact data at primary school level: the STEPS approach 199
Roger Blamire