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EU policies call for the strengthening of Europe's innovative capacity and the development of a creative and knowledge-intensive economy and society through reinforcing the role of education and training in the knowledge triangle and focusing school curricula on creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship. This report brings evidence to the debate on the status, barriers and enablers for creativity and innovation in compulsory schooling in Europe. It is the final report of the project: ‘Creativity and Innovation in Education and Training in the EU27 (ICEAC)’ carried out by IPTS in collaboration with DG Education and Culture, highlighting the main messages gathered from each phase of the study: a literature review, a survey with teachers, an analysis of curricula and of good practices, stakeholder and expert interviews, and experts workshops. Based on this empirical material, five major areas for improvement are proposed to enable more creative learning and innovative teaching in Europe: curricula, pedagogies and assessment, teacher training, ICT and digital media, and educational culture and leadership. The study highlights the need for action at both national and European level to bring about the changes required for an open and innovative European educational culture based on the creative and innovative potential of its future generation."

" This report is the final report of a project on ‘Creativity and Innovation in Education and Training
in the EU27 (ICEAC)’ carried out by the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS) under an
Administrative Agreement with DG Education and Culture, Directorate A, Unit A3. This project aims
to provide a better understanding of how innovation and creativity are framed in the national and/or
regional education objectives and applied in educational practice at primary and secondary school level.
It collects and analyses the present state of affairs in the Member States as regards the role of creativity and
innovation in primary and secondary schools. The project started in December 2008 and the following
methodological steps were taken:
• A scoping workshop (held in Seville on 23-24 February 2009);
• A literature review on the role of creativity and innovation in education by IPTS;1
• A report on the analysis of curricula by empirica;2
• A report on a teachers' survey conducted by IPTS and European Schoolnet and analysed by IPTS with
the support of the University of Seville;3
• Interviews with educational stakeholders by Futurelab and IOE;4
• A report on good practices by Futurelab and IOE;
• A validation workshop (held in Seville on 1-2 June 2010);
• This final report.
More information on the project can be found at:
http://is.jrc.ec.europa.eu/pages/EAP/iceac.html
More information on current and past projects on ICT for learning can be found at:
http://is.jrc.ec.europa.eu/pages/EAP/eLearning.html
The studies and results of the IPTS Information Society Unit can be found on the Unit website:
http://is.jrc.ec.europa.eu"

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image                                           Table of Contents
1 Introduction 13
1.1 Policy context 13
1.2 Methodology of the study 15
2 Main messages from the different phases of the study 19
2.1 What the literature says 19
2.2 What the workshop participants say 20
2.3 What the curricula documents say 21
2.4 What the teachers say 23
2.5 What the educational stakeholders say 25
2.6 What the cases say 26
3 Major results for creative learning and innovative teaching 29
3.1 Framing of creativity in curricula 29
3.2 Pedagogic practice and assessment for creativity 31
3.3 Teachers’ skills development 35
3.4 ICT and digital media 37
3.5 Political and cultural context for learning and teaching 40
4 Policy options and recommendations 45
4.1 Curricula 45
4.2 Assessment and support for creative pedagogies 46
4.3 Teacher education and professional development 46
4.4 ICT and digital media 47
4.5 Educational culture and leadership 48
5 Conclusions 49
References

Executive Summary
The importance of creativity and innovation
in addressing the economic, environmental
and social crises has been recognized in policy
discussion in Europe. Recent policies call
for the strengthening of Europe’s innovative
capacity and the development of a creative
and knowledge-intensive economy and society
through reinforcing the role of education and
training in the knowledge triangle and focusing
school curricula on creativity, innovation and
entrepreneurship. It has been recognized that
schools and initial education play a key role in
fostering and developing people’s creative and
innovative capacities for further learning and
their working lives.
Notwithstanding the intensive policy
discourse in this area, there is little research or
evidence on the status, barriers and enablers
for creativity and innovation in compulsory
schooling at a European level. This report
aims to fill this gap by collecting evidence
on creativity and innovation in education in
schools in the EU27. Evidence comes from a
literature review, a survey with teachers, an
analysis of curricula and of good practices,
stakeholder and expert interviews, and
experts workshops. This report elaborates and
synthesises the data and results gathered from
each phase of the study.
It is argued that creativity, in the educational
context, should be conceptualized as a transversal
and cross-curricular skill, which everyone can
develop. Therefore it can be fostered but also
inhibited. This report proposes five major areas
where effort and improvement is needed to enable
more creative learning and innovative teaching:
namely, curricula, pedagogies and assessment,
teacher training, ICT and digital media, and
educational culture and leadership.
Curricula: The study shows that the
terms ‘creativity’, and ‘innovation’ and their
synonyms are mentioned relatively often in the
EU27 curricula. Many teachers and education
experts however, feel that the curricula in their
countries do not, as yet, sufficiently encourage
creativity and innovation, mainly because they
are not clear how creativity should be defined
and how it should be treated in learning and
assessment. Furthermore, curricula are often
overloaded with content, which reduces the
possibilities of creative and innovative learning
approaches in practice. This study highlights
the need for the revision of curricula, so as to
provide a consistent definition of creativity,
and better guidance on how teachers should
develop creativity and innovation in practice
and encourage development of cross-curricular
competences. Consultation and dialogue with
all educational stakeholders, including parents
or their representatives, in revising curricula may
be a benign and participatory form of promoting
debate and reflection on a shared understanding
of quality and vision in education where creativity
and innovation are encouraged.
Pedagogy and assessment: In terms of
pedagogical practices, the teachers who
participated in this study have highly positive
views about the importance of creativity and
innovation in education. They claim to encourage
learning activities which are likely to allow
students to be creative and also aim to foster skills
and abilities that enable creativity and innovation.
Despite such claims, it has been observed that
conventional ways of teaching related to teachercentred
methods, frontal teaching and chalk and
talk prevail in a good majority of schools in the
EU27. Primary level teachers were more likely
than secondary teachers to promote creative
learning skills and abilities and active learner

centred learning approaches in class. While
teachers’ lack of skills and confidence is one of
the main reasons for creative practices, other
factors - namely, tight timetables, overloaded
curricula, lack of support in the class, too many
pupils per teacher and a school culture that does
not support new methods - were also highlighted.
Teachers tend to be isolated and lack support and
hence seem to prefer to encourage convergence
and discipline instead of divergence because it is
easier to handle in class.
The process of assessment comes up
throughout the study as a major issue which
affects school practice and culture, as it is both
an enabler and a barrier for creative learning and
innovative teaching. In most countries, grades
and summative assessment are the main type
of assessment, especially in secondary schools.
However, examples of more versatile ways of
assessing students, such as assessment through
presentations, group work, peer feedback and
portfolios, were also noted. There is resistance
to changing the traditional assessment practices,
as parents, teachers, and even students often
consider grades as the most significant way of
giving feedback about learning. This highlights
the importance of dialogue and networking
with all the educational stakeholders in order
to support children’s learning in creative and
innovative ways. Furthermore, the study stresses
the importance of accompanying curricula
reforms with the revision of national exams and
the principles of quality assessment for schools.
Changes in learning objectives cannot be
implemented in practice if assessment for pupils
and schools remain the same.
Teacher training: In order to develop
creative learning approaches, it is crucial that
teacher training prepares new teachers to
become reflective practitioners able to discern
how a teaching method or activity can stifle or
trigger creativity in their students. Results from
this study show that teachers who were trained
on creativity held more positive views about its
relation to education. Similarly, teachers who
had received training in ICT were more likely
to sustain that new technologies are important
for learning. This study also shows that teachers
with most interest for innovation and changing
pedagogic methods were those who have already
some years of experience of teaching practice
after the initial training. This suggests that while
major improvement in Initial Teacher Training
(ITT) is needed in the EU27, as only a quarter of
the teachers surveyed considered that they had
learnt how to teach during ITT, it is also important
that more effort is dedicated at understanding
teachers’ life histories and trajectories. Teacher
training programmes must be reviewed and
revised to ensure that they promote diverse and
innovative teaching methods, digital competence
and teaching cross-curricular competences
with plenty of hands-on classroom practice
and efficient guidance. In addition, facilitating
professional development of confidence and
capabilities in enabling teachers to take creative
risks within traditional and cautious systems
is also important. The potential of the internet
as a space where peer learning and interaction
with outside experts could take place should
be further exploited and existing European
networking activities such as eTwinning should
be more effectively promoted among all schools
and teachers.
ICT and digital media: This study highlights
the potential of Information Communications
Technology (ICT) in enabling innovative and
creative school environments. Technologies play
a crucial role in learners’ lives and can act as a
platform to foster creative learning and innovative
teaching. However, for ICT’s potential for
change to be realised, a policy drive is needed.
Teachers who responded to the survey mostly
use the Internet for retrieving information and for
downloading or preparing resources. Only half
of them used the Internet for collaboration and
networking. Technologies are far from exploited
for creative and innovative purposes in the
classroom. Furthermore, despite the increase in
the numbers of computers in schools, our survey
results show that hands-on access for pupils

remains very low. Allowing students to play with
the tools could enhance pupils’ motivation to
think, understand and learn in innovative ways.
There is a need for personal and pedagogical
digital competence for both teachers and
students.
More research should be undertaken on
how technologies are appropriated by teachers,
in order to support them in developing more
efficient pedagogical and innovative usage of
the technologies for learning. Results from this
study also demonstrate that the potential of new
technologies for creative learning and innovative
teaching cannot be exploited unless teachers’
proficiency in using ICT and the quality of ICT
in schools is improved, software in different
languages is provided and more space for
interaction between teachers and students is
allowed. There is a strong need for pedagogic
training which empowers teachers with the
required ICT skills to help their students become
digitally competent on the one hand, and for
guiding students towards more exploratory and
creative interaction with ICT tools on the other
hand. Results from the best practice examples also
show that enabling interaction between teachers
and outside experts could be highly beneficial in
terms of learning in innovative and creative way.
Educational culture and leadership: It
becomes clear from the study that major changes
are needed in the overall educational culture
towards more creative learning and innovative
teaching. People outside the classroom, such
as school leaders, national policymakers and
pupils’ parents should also be involved in this
change. Creativity and innovation are often
perceived to be present in the school culture,
however, they are often not a priority. Therefore,
innovative teachers’ personal classroom practice
is not necessarily aligned with the culture they
experience as their working context, nor is it
rewarded or appreciated by school leaders. This
highlights the importance of school leadership
in supporting and appreciating teachers’ efforts
in implementing innovative pedagogic practices
and experimenting with them. There is a need
for a holistic strategy for implementing change
towards more creative learning and teaching,
taking into account curricula, assessment,
teacher training, and funding, with joint dialogue
between all stakeholders. The European Year
2009 of Creativity and Innovation had visible
effects in most of the countries studied and similar
European and national awareness raising events
should be organised.
Throughout this report, it has been argued
that educational actors have the power to
unlock the creative and innovative potential of
the young. However, they require substantial
support, especially in terms of training, revision
of curricula and assessment, and institutional
change. There is a growing need for action at
both national and European level to bring about
the necessary changes required for an open and
innovative European educational culture based
on the creative and innovative potential of its
future generations."